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Revision Questions: Genitourinary (Preview)

Sample Questions

  1. List and explain the main types of urinary incontinence.
  2. Anticholinergics are used to treat which type of incontinence? How do they work?
  3. What is the most common initial adverse reaction in alpha blockers?
  4. What is nocturnal enuresis?
  5. When should drug measures be used for nocturnal enuresis?

Sample Answers

  1. Types of incontinence:
    • Urge incontinence - storage failure due to uninhibited contractions to bladder.
    • Stress incontinence - impaired urethral support, resulting in urine loss due to increases in intra-abdominal pressure through actions such as coughing and exercise.
    • Overflow incontinence - failure of voiding due to outlet obstruction or failure to contract detrusor muscles, resulting in urinary retention.
  2. Anticholinergics are mainly used in urge incontinence.
  3. The most common initial reaction that occurs in alpha blockers is dizziness upon standing.
  4. Nocturnal enuresis is the involuntary loss of urine by an individual during night time. It is normal in young children but is concerning if it persists beyond a certain age in which bladder control is considered to be fully achieved.
  5. Drug treatment such as desmopressin should only be used when alternative non-drug treatments such as bed wetting alarms and bladder training have failed.

The full version has many more questions with answers included.

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